Friday, July 29, 2016

13 Classic Works of Art, Egyptian Women. With Footnotes

Wilhelm Kotarbiński, (1848–1921)
Oil on canvas
135 × 246 cm (53.1 × 96.9 in)

Wilhelm Kotarbiński (born 30 November 1848, Nieborów; died 4 September 1921, Kiev) was a Polish Symbolist painter of historical and fantastical subjects who spent most of his working life in Ukraine. He began his studies at the Warsaw School of Art from 1867 to 1871. Afterward, he enrolled at the University of Warsaw, urged on by his parents who were opposed to an artistic career, but stayed for only a short time before borrowing money from his uncle and moving to Italy. The following year, he was able to arrange a stipend from the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of the Arts and enrolled at the Accademia di San Luca, where he studied with Francesco Podesti until 1875, living in poverty and barely surviving a case of typhoid.

Wilhelm Kotarbiński (1848–1921)
Egyptian, c. 1900
Oil on canvas
125 x 63 cm

After graduating, with more help from the Imperial Society, he was able to set up his own studio in Rome and held his first solo exhibition. His first commission came from the art critic Vladimir Stasov, who engaged him to copy a 14th-century manuscript from the Vatican Museums. He soon acquired many wealthy customers.

In 1888, he left Italy to go to Kiev and work on an upcoming project, and began painting in the local churches. Although he was Catholic, he did decorative work at the Orthodox St Volodymyr's Cathedral from 1889 to 1894. Under the supervision of Adrian Prakhov, an expert on old Russian and Byzantine art, he worked on 84 individual figures and 18 full paintings, including a large painting of the transfiguration of Christ. 

In 1890, he joined the Union of South Russian Artists and, in 1893, together with Jan Stanisławski and others, founded the Society of Kiev Painters. He was named an Academician of the Imperial Academy in 1905. More

John Singer Sargent, (1856–1925)
Egyptian Woman or Coin Necklace, c. 1891
Oil on canvas
64.8 cm (25.51 in.), Width: 50.8 cm (20 in.) 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation" for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida.

John Singer Sargent, (1856–1925)
Egyptian Woman, c. 1890–91
Oil on canvas
25 1/2 x 21 in. (64.8 x 53.3 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

He was trained in Paris prior to moving to London. Sargent enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, although not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his "Portrait of Madame X", was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but it resulted in scandal instead. From the beginning his work was characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air. He lived most of his life in Europe. More

John Singer Sargent - 1891
Nude Study of an Egyptian Girl 
Painting - oil on canvas 
Height: 190.5 cm (75 in.), Width: 61 cm (24.02 in.)
Art Institute of Chicago (United States)

The nude Egyptian Girl, I believe, is the only female nude that Sargent did in oil. As the name implies, the painting was done in Egypt on his trip there to do research for the Boston Public Library murals. In some ways it harks back to the Velazquez's Venus at her Mirror. Like Sargent, this was Velazquez's only female nude and both men paint their subject facing away. Although it is not known for sure that Venus at her Mirror was the painting that influenced Sargent's Egyptian Girl, the importance of Velazquez work in influencing Sargent's art is well documented and if it wasn't on his mind, the coincidences are remarkable. Notice, particularly, the very delicate modulation of skin color in Sargent's painting which Velazquez used as well. More 

Karel Ooms (1845–1900)
The woman of Cairo, c. 1865-1900
Oil on canvas
Height: 65.5 cm (25.8 in). Width: 46 cm (18.1 in).

Karel Ooms (27 January 1845, Dessel - 18 March 1900, Cannes) was a Belgian painter of portraits, genre paintings and history paintings. He was also known for his Orientalist scenes and Oriental landscapes. He was born in Dessel. At school his extraordinary talent for drawing was discovered. When he was twelve his hometown provided financial support which allowed him to study at the Antwerp Academy of Fine Arts.

Karel Ooms settled as an independent artist in Antwerp around 1871. He quickly established a reputation as a portrait painter. In addition he received commissions for religious paintings and history paintings. He gained particular recognition with two large paintings he made for the criminal courtroom of the Antwerp Courthouse.

Karel made many travels in Europe and the Middle East. His travels to Palestine and Egypt are documented through the landscape paintings he made on location. In the Middle East he found abundant inspiration for his Orientalist paintings. More

Luis Ricardo Falero, (1851–1896)
Egyptian Woman with Harp, c. 1874
Oil on panel
39 x 23.5 cm

Luis Ricardo Falero (1851 – December 7, 1896), Duke of Labranzano, was a Spanish painter. He specialized in female nudes and mythological, oriental and fantasy settings.[1] Most of his paintings contained at least one nude or topless female. His most common medium was oil on canvas.

Falero was born in Granada and originally pursued a career in the Spanish Navy, but gave it up to his parents' disappointment. He walked all the way to Paris, where he studied art, chemistry and mechanical engineering. The experiments that he had to conduct in the latter two were so dangerous, however, that he decided to focus on painting alone. After Paris, he studied in London, where he eventually settled.

Falero had a particular interest in astronomy and incorporated celestial constellations into many of his works, such as "The Marriage of a Comet" and "Twin Stars". His interest and knowledge of astronomy also led him to illustrate the works of Camille Flammarion. More

Cleopatra, c. 1533-34
Black chalk on paper
225 x 170 mm
Casa Buonarroti, Florence

This highly decorative, virtuoso drawing was one of a series of gifts for Tommaso de' Cavalieri, a young artist whom Michelangelo wished to teach and of whom he was deeply fond. The elder painters's celebrated draftsmanship is visible in the extreme twist of head and neck, known as 'serpentinata' - perhaps a play on words, given the fatal, coiling asp.

In many of his drawings Michelangelo created ideal portraits of women, in which he frequently emphasized the beauty of the female figures with imaginative hair styles plaited with scarves, other fabrics, or pieces of jewellery and adorned with exquisite headdresses and similar accessories. These portraits were in keeping with Florentine traditions, influenced by the works of Sandro Botticelli, Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Piero di Cosimo. More

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 1475 – 18 February 1564), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with contemporary rival and fellow Florentine Medici client, Leonardo da Vinci.

A number of Michelangelo's works in painting, sculpture, and architecture rank among the most famous in existence. His output in every field of interest was prodigious; given the sheer volume of surviving correspondence, sketches, and reminiscences taken into account, he is the best-documented artist of the 16th century.

Two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, were sculpted before the age of thirty. Despite his low opinion of painting, Michelangelo also created two of the most influential frescoes in the history of Western art: the scenes from Genesis on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome, and The Last Judgment on its altar wall. As an architect, Michelangelo pioneered the Mannerist style at the Laurentian Library. At the age of 74, he succeeded Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as the architect of St. Peter's Basilica. Michelangelo transformed the plan, the western end being finished to Michelangelo's design, the dome being completed after his death with some modification.

In his lifetime he was also often called Il Divino ("the divine one"). One of the qualities most admired by his contemporaries was his terribilità, a sense of awe-inspiring grandeur, and it was the attempts of subsequent artists to imitate Michelangelo's impassioned and highly personal style that resulted in Mannerism, the next major movement in Western art after the High Renaissance. More

Henri Guillaume Schlesinger, (1814-1893)
An Egyptian Girl Preparing for the Bath
Oil On Canvas
90 x 117.5 cm, (35.43" x 46.26")
Private collection

Henri Guillaume Schlesinger (6 August 1814 in Frankfurt am Main , died on 21 February 1893 in Neuilly-sur-Seine ) was a German painter of portraits and genre. Besides his oil painting, he used watercolor painting, and miniature painting on ivory.

Schlesinger studied at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, where he was active initially. He oved to Paris and continued his artistic education. In the period 1840-1889, he exhibited his work at the Paris Salon . Henri Guillaume Schlesinger in 1837 realizes several official portraits including a large equestrian portrait of Sultan Mahmud II . In 1870-1871 years he lived in London .

Schlesinger received the Legion of Honor in 1866, and his French citizenship in 1870. More

Franz Xavier Kosler (Austrian ,1864-1906)
Portrait of a young Egyptian girl, Cairo 1900
Oil on canvas
23 3/4 x 17 1/4 in. (60.3 x 43.8 cm.)

In Egypt Kosler opened a one-man exhibition, in Cairo, in 1894. The show was a great success and secured Kosler many wealthy Egyptian clients including Prince Said Halim Pasha, the grandson of Mehemet Ali Pasha, the future Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire, who commissioned a series of portraits from the artist. 

Franz Xavier Kosler (Austrian, 1864-1905), born in Vienna in 1864, was one of the most celebrated Orientalist painters of his generation. Kosler began his artistic studies at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste (The Academy of Fine Arts) in Vienna, studying under the renowned Austrian Orientalist artist Leopold Carl Müller. Highly influenced by his work Kosler went on to follow in his tutor's footsteps travelling abroad to paint the Near East firsthand, depicting richly coloured genre scenes and tender close-up portraits of young sitters dressed in traditional clothing, echoing the work of his mentor. Setting off in 1886, Kosler travelled to Dalmatia, Montenegro, Albania and Egypt, returning to the latter two years after he had returned to Vienna in 1866, sponsored by Archduke Ferdinand Karl. More

 Jacques Clement Wagrez, French. 1846-1908
oil on canvas

Wagrez Jacques Clement , born in 1846 or 1850 in Paris where he died in 1908, is a genre painter , illustrator and designer. Jacques Clement followed the course of Fine Arts under the direction of master Isidore Pils and of Henri Lehmann , a pupil of Ingres . He enrolled in the studio of Jules Eugène Lenepveu before leaving Italy for a study tour. The Venetian and Florentine renaissance inspired his subjects and scenery. In 1870 he sent to the salon his first watercolors and portraits that earned him great fame. More

Guido Bach, (1828-1905)
An Egyptian Woman Carrying a Brace of Chickens, Cairo, 1876
Height: 54 cm (21.26 in.), Width: 37 cm (14.57 in.) 
Private collection

Guido Bach (1828-1905) was a German portrait and genre painter and watercolorist. He studied from 1843 to 1847 at the Academy of Fine Arts Dresden in Julius Hübner, mainly with the watercolors. Guido Bach visited Italy, Bohemia and Egypt. He created portraits and images from the Italian village life, as well as images from the life of the North African Arabs.

Since 1862 he lived in London. There he exhibited his works at the Royal Institute and at the Royal Academy of Arts (1880 and 1883), and at the Grosvenor Gallery from. His works "The Golden Age" and "Feathered Friends" found  recognition at the Royal Academy. At the Dresdner watercolor exhibition he participated 1887th. More

Guido Bach, (1828-1905)
An Egyptian Mother and her Children, 1876
Height: 59.5 cm (23.43 in.), Width: 44.5 cm (17.52 in.)
Private collection

Laetitia Mathilde, Princesse Bonaparte
Une fellah, c. 1861
92 x 63 cm
Huile et détrempe sur papier
Nantes, Musée des Beaux-Arts

Mathilde Laetitia Wilhelmine Bonaparte, Princesse Française (27 May 1820 – 2 January 1904), was a French princess and Salon holder. She was a daughter of Napoleon's brother Jérôme Bonaparte and his second wife, Catharina of Württemberg, daughter of King Frederick I of Württemberg. More

Statue of an Offering Bearer of wood
Middle Kingdom, Dynasty:Dynasty 12
Reign:early reign of Amenemhat I
Gesso, paint from Egypt
Metropolitan Museum of Art

This masterpiece of Egyptian wood carving was discovered in a hidden chamber at the side of the passage leading into the rock cut tomb of the royal chief steward Meketre, who began his career under King Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II of Dynasty 11 and continued to serve successive kings into the early years of Dynasty 12. Together with a second, very similar female figure (now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo) this statue flanked the group of twenty two models of gardens, workshops, boats, and a funeral procession that were crammed into the chamber's narrow space. More

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others

Sunday, July 17, 2016

16 Classic Works of Art, Marine Paintings - With Footnotes

Ilya Yefimovich Repin (5 August 1844 – 29 September 1930) 
The end of the Black Sea Volnitsa. 1900 

Ilya Yefimovich Repin (5 August 1844 – 29 September 1930)
Zaporozhian Cossacks in a "chaika" boat during a storm on the Black Sea, c. 1908
Oil on canvas

Zaporozhian Cossacks used the “Chaika” or wooden boats with masts and sails in early warfare encompassing the 16th and 17th centuries. The crew consisted of 30 to 50 men.

Ilya Yefimovich Repin (5 August 1844 – 29 September 1930) was the most renowned Russian artist of the 19th century. He played a major role in bringing Russian art into the mainstream of European culture. His major works include Barge Haulers on the Volga (1873), Religious Procession in Kursk Province (1883) and Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks (1880–91).

Repin was born in Chuguyev, in the Kharkov Governorate (now Ukraine) of the Russian Empire into a military family. He entered military school in 1854 and in 1856 studied under Ivan Bunakov, a local icon painter. He began to paint around 1860. In 1874–1876 he showed at the Salon in Paris and at the exhibitions of the Itinerants' Society in Saint Petersburg. He was awarded the title of academician in 1876.

In 1901 he was awarded the Legion of Honour. In 1911 he traveled to the World Exhibition in Italy, where his painting 17 October 1905 and his portraits were displayed in their own separate room. In 1916 Repin worked on his book of reminiscences, Far and Near. He welcomed the Russian Revolution of 1917. Celebrations were held in 1924 in Kuokkala to mark Repin's 80th birthday, followed by an exhibition of his works in Moscow. In 1925 a jubilee exhibition of his works was held in the Russian Museum in Leningrad. Repin died in 1930 and was buried at the Penates. More

Montague Dawson R.S.M.A., F.R.S.A., 1895-1973
Oil on canvas
101.5 by 127cm., 40 by 50in.

Dawson insisted on strict accuracy in terms of the rendering  of nautical detail and the vast majority of his works, particularly the tea clippers of the 19th century, depict specific vessels , in a particular place on a recorded voyage.  In the present work the vertically orientated design of the stern galleries suggest a British ship of the late 17th century, but other than that the narrative and detail is left tantalisingly ambiguous.  Dawson was clearly enamoured and inspired by the notorious pirates and privateers of the 17th century and produced a number of dramatic and escapist paintings, of which the present work is an example. More

Montague Dawson RMSA, FRSA (1890–1973) was a British painter who was renowned as a maritime artist. His most famous paintings depict sailing ships, usually clippers or warships of the 18th and 19th centuries. More

Philip Richard Morris, A.R.A., 1838-1902
LAND AHOY! c. 1864
Oil on canvas
43 by 53.5cm., 17 by 21in.

Philip Richard Morris (4 December 1836 in Devonport – 22 April 1902 Clifton Hill, Maida Vale, London) was an English painter of genre and maritime scenes, Holman Hunt-influenced religious paintings and (later in his career) portraits.

Taken to London aged 14 by his iron-founder father to train for the family trade, Philip became increasingly interested in art and, with William Holman Hunt winning round his father, began taking evening drawing classes in the British Museum and (from 1855) in the Royal Academy Schools. At the latter, he used the travelling studentship he won for his The Good Samaritan to fund a journey to Italy and France, remaining there until 1864.

He was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1877, though he resigned it in 1900. More

Charles Napier Hemy, 1841-1917
Oil on board
45.5 by 70cm.,18 by 27¼in.

Charles Napier Hemy RA (Newcastle-on-Tyne 24 May 1841 – 30 September 1917 Falmouth) was a British painter best known for his marine paintings and his paintings in the Tate collections.

He trained in the Government School of Design, Newcastle, followed by the Antwerp Academy and the studio of Baron Leys. He returned to London in the 1870s and in 1881 moved to the coastal town of Falmouth in Cornwall. He produced painted figure and landscapes, but is best known works are Pilchards (1897) and London River (1904) which are in the Tate collections.

Charles Napier Hemy, 1841–1917
Pilchards, c. 1897
Oil paint on paper mounted on canvas
1130 x 2121 mm
Tate Britain

John Singer Sargent painted a portrait (now in the Falmouth Art Gallery collection) of Hemy on a visit to Hemy's Falmouth home, 'Churchfield', in 1905. The visit highlighted the importance of the circle of artists that surrounded the great marine artist in the town.

Charles Napier Hemy 1841–1917
London River, c. 1904
Oil paint on canvas
1206 x 1829 mm
Tate Britain

Hemy was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1898 and an Academician in 1910, he was also honoured as an Associate of the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours in 1890 and became a full member in 1897.

He died in Falmouth on 30 September 1917. More

Lev Felixovich Lagorio, 1826-1905
Oil on canvas
43.7 by 71.5cm, 17 1/4 by 28 in.

Lev Feliksovich Lagorio (1828–1905) was a Russian painter, known for his paintings of seascapes. Lagorio was born in Feodosia, Crimea and later studied in the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg. In 1845 Lagorio went on a sea voyage on the warship Groziashchy to study the arrangement of the ship.

Lagorio spent eight years in Italy. The paintings he created there brought him to the status of professor on his return home to Russia. In his later years, he painted the coastal views of Finland and Norway. He also painted motives of the Russian-Turkish war. More

Jack Lorimer Gray, 1927-1981
Heavy Weather on Crossing to France (John Paul Jones's Ranger)
Oil on Canvas

Jack Lorimer Gray, 1927 - 1981
Oil on canvas
26 by 40 in., 66 by 101.5 cm.

Jack Lorimer Gray (April 28, 1927 — September, 1981) was a Canadian artist, known particularly for marine art. As a schoolboy young Jack loved drawing pictures, especially those of ships at sea. By the end of World War II he was a student at In the summer of 1945 Gray boarded with the Young family of East Ironbound island and made many sketches of island life which subsequently were turned into large paintings. 

His first major solo exhibition was at the Hackmatack Inn in Chester, Nova Scotia in 1948, leading to several commissions. With subsequent patronage from the Philadelphia dowager heiress Mary Dayton Cavendish, Maritime brewery owner Sidney C. Oland and others in the Oland family, Gray gradually advanced his career, living aboard boats in the early 1950s. When the steamship Dufferin Bell was wrecked on the Nova Scotian coast in 1951, Gray traveled with the salvage crew and filled several sketchbooks, attracting the attention of the press. An early friendship with author Thomas Head Raddall led to Gray's pen-and ink illustrations in Raddall's A Muster of Arms (1954); Gray also painted a wartime scene of Duncan's Cove, Nova Scotia for the book's dust jacket.[1] While based in Chester in the summers from 1953 to 1955, he painted in (his landlord) Herman Walker's sail loft in the Back Harbour. More

Oil on panel
5 1/2 x 9 7/16 in. (14 x 23.9 cm)

Giovanni Boldini (31 December 1842 in Ferrara, Italy – 11 July 1931 in Paris, France) was an Italian genre and portrait painter. According to a 1933 article in Time magazine, he was known as the "Master of Swish" because of his flowing style of painting. Boldini was born in Ferrara, the son of a painter of religious subjects, and in 1862 went to Florence for six years to study and pursue painting. He only infrequently attended classes at the Academy of Fine Arts, but in Florence, met other realist painters known as the Macchiaioli, who were Italian precursors to Impressionism. 

Moving to London, Boldini attained success as a portraitist. He completed portraits of premier members of society. From 1872 he lived in Paris, where he became a friend of Edgar Degas. He also became the most fashionable portrait painter in Paris in the late 19th century. He was nominated commissioner of the Italian section of the Paris Exposition in 1889, and received the Légion d'honneur for this appointment.

A Boldini portrait of his former muse Marthe de Florian, a French actress, was discovered in a Paris flat in late 2010, hidden away from view on the premises that were unvisited for 70 years. The portrait has never been listed, exhibited or published and the flat belonged to de Florian's granddaughter who went to live in the South of France at the outbreak of the Second World War and never returned. A love-note and a biographical reference to the work painted in 1888, when the actress was 24, cemented its authenticity. The full length portrait of the lady in the same clothing and accessories, but less provocative, hangs in the New Orleans Museum of Art. More

Attributed to Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1817-1900
Pencil and wash heightened with gouache on paper
20 by 30.5cm, 8 by 12in.

Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, see below

Simon Jacobsz. de Vlieger, ROTTERDAM CIRCA 1600/1 - 1653 WEESP
Black chalk within black chalk framing lines
77 by 145 mm

Simon de Vlieger (1601 – 1653) was a Dutch designer, draughtsman, and painter, most famous for his marine paintings. Born in Rotterdam, de Vlieger moved in 1634 to Delft, where he joined the Guild of Saint Luke, and then to Amsterdam in 1638. In the 1630s and 1640s he was one of the best-known Dutch maritime painters. He moved away from the monochrome style of Jan Porcellis and Willem van de Velde, the elder towards a more realistic use of colour, with highly detailed and accurate representations of rigging and ship construction. He painted ships in harbour and at sea as well as storms and shipwrecks. More

Russian School
oil on canvas
65.5 by 90.2cm, 25 3/4 by 35 1/2 in.

Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1817-1900
Oil on canvas
32 by 43.6cm, 12 1/2 by 17 1/4 in.

Attributed to Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1817-1900
Oil on canvas
36.5 by 40.7cm, 14 1/2 by 16in.

Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (29 July 1817 – 2 May 1900) was a Russian Romantic painter. He is considered one of the greatest marine artists in history. Baptized as Hovhannes Aivazian, Aivazovsky was born into an Armenian family in the Black Sea port of Feodosia and was mostly based in his native Crimea.

Following his education at the Imperial Academy of Arts, Aivazovsky traveled to Europe and lived briefly in Italy in the early 1840s. He then returned to Russia and was appointed the main painter of the Russian Navy. Aivazovsky had close ties with the military and political elite of the Russian Empire and often attended military maneuvers. He was sponsored by the state and was well-regarded during his lifetime.

One of the most prominent Russian artists of his time, Aivazovsky was also popular outside Russia. He held numerous solo exhibitions in Europe and the United States. During his almost 60-year career, he created around 6,000 paintings, making him one of the most prolific artists of his time. The vast majority of his works are seascapes, but he often depicted battle scenes, Armenian themes, and portraiture. Most of Aivazovsky's works are kept in Russian, Ukrainian and Armenian museums as well as private collections. More

Yuli Yulievich Klever and Studio, 1850-1924
Oil on canvas
32.5 by 47.5cm, 11 ¾ by 18 ¾in.

Yuliy Yulevich Klever was a Russian painter who was born in 1850. Klever attended the Academy of St. Petersburg, and upon graduation worked in the studio of Worobjew. In the Paris Exhibition in 1878, his works were shown in the Russian Pavilion designed by Ivan Ropet. Klever was awarded a Gold Medal at the Berlin Exhibition in 1888, and received Honorable Mention at the Paris Exhibition the following year. Throughout his career he exhibited works in Russia, Germany, Austria and France and his works have been displayed at the Hermitage, the Moscow Museum and the Tretyakov Gallery. More

Constantin Westchiloff, 1877-1945
Oil on canvas
91.5 by 112cm, 36 by 44in.

Constantin Alexandrovich Westchiloff (1877–1945) was a Russian-American Impressionist painter. Westchiloff was born in Russia in 1877. He studied under Ilya Repin at the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg from 1898. He won an award in 1904 for the painting, "Ivan the Terrible After the Triumph of Kazan." He held a foreign study fellowship from the Royal Academy in 1905-06. He exhibited in the Royal Academy's Fall Exhibit of 1906, showing "Breakthrough of the Cruiser Askold in 1904 in the Yellow Sea," which documented the Russo-Japanese War.

He emigrated from Soviet Russia in 1922, lived in Italy (1923-1928), France (1929-1935), and immigrated to the United States in 1935 and settled in New York, where he died. More

SIR JOHN LAVERY, R.A., R.H.A., R.S.A., 1856-1941
Embarking at Southampton, c. 1917
Oil on canvas

Sir John Lavery RA (20 March 1856 – 10 January 1941) was an Irish painter best known for his portraits and wartime depictions. Born in Belfast Lavery attended Haldane Academy in Glasgow in the 1870s and the Académie Julian in Paris in the early 1880s. He returned to Glasgow and was associated with the Glasgow School. In 1888 he was commissioned to paint the state visit of Queen Victoria to the Glasgow International Exhibition. This launched his career as a society painter and he moved to London soon after. In London he became friendly with James McNeill Whistler and was clearly influenced by him.

Lavery was appointed an official artist in the First World War. Ill-health, however, prevented him from travelling to the Western Front. A serious car crash during a Zeppelin bombing raid also kept him from fulfilling this role as war artist. He remained in Britain and mostly painted boats, aeroplanes and airships. 

After the war he was knighted and in 1921 he was elected to the Royal Academy.

He and his wife were tangentially involved in the Irish War of Independence and the Irish Civil War. They gave the use of their London home to the Irish negotiators during the negotiations leading to the Anglo-Irish Treaty. In 1929, Lavery made substantial donations of his work to both The Ulster Museum and the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery and in the 1930s he returned to Ireland. He received honorary degrees from the University of Dublin and Queen's University Belfast. He was also made a free man of both Dublin and Belfast. More

Acknowledgement: Sotheby's

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others

Saturday, July 9, 2016

40 Paintings of Courtesans of Paris, as portrayed by the Artists from 1850-1910 - Part 2 - Anticipation to Seduction

Part 1 can be viewed at :

Licensed brothels (maisons de tolérance) were a central feature of the regulatory system introduced under the Consulate. They were legalised in 1804 to allow effective police and medical monitoring of the girls working there, each of whom was registered in the brothel-keeper’s ledger and allocated a number. More

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864–1901)
In the Salon of Rue des Moulins, 1894
Oil on canvas
111.5 × 132.5 cm (43.9 × 52.2 in)

Musée Toulouse-Lautrec

Exhibition of Mills Street was painted between 1894 and 1895 by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Under the stern eye of "Madame" (the patron who rules the establishment), four women in robes wallow about on plush cushioned sofas, in the oriental décor of the brothel White Flower No. 6 of the rue des Moulins . On the right, a prostitute lifts her skirt to reveal what she has to sell to potential customers. More

Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901), also known as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and illustrator whose immersion in the colourful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th century allowed him to produce a collection of enticing, elegant and provocative images of the modern, sometimes decadent, life of those times. Toulouse-Lautrec is among the best-known painters of the Post-Impressionist period, alongside Cézanne, Van Gogh and Gauguin.  More

Jean-Louis Forain (1852–1931)
The client, Date 1878
Dixon Gallery and Gardens - Memphis, TN
Watercolor, gouache and pencil
Height: 24.77 cm (9.75 in.), Width: 32.39 cm (12.75 in.)

Jean-Louis Forain (23 October 1852 – 11 July 1931) was a French Impressionist painter, lithographer, watercolorist and etcher. He began his career working as a caricaturist for several Paris journals including Le Monde Parisien and Le rire satirique. He  enrolled at the École des Beaux Arts, studying under Jean-Léon Gérôme and Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. Forain was the youngest artist to frequent and participate in the feverish debates led by Édouard Manet and Edgar Degas at the Café de la Nouvelle Athènes in Montmartre.

Aside from being influenced by Edgar Degas, Forain was greatly influenced by Honoré Daumier. In 1892 he published the first volume of La Comédie Parisienne, a collection of Forain's illustrations and commentary on the major stories political stories that disrupted France’s Third Republic—such as the anarchic crisis and the Dreyfus affair. In 1891 Forain married the painter Jeanne Bosc with whom he had a son, Jean-Loup, born in 1895.

During the first World War, Forain's illustrations honored the patriotism of his contemporaries. In 1931, shortly before his death, he was made a member of the Royal Academy of Arts in London. He was one of France's best known and revered artists during his time and may best be remembered for his numerous drawings chronicling and commenting on Parisian city life at the end of the 19th century. Followers and admirers of Forain's work include Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. More

Pablo Picasso, 1881 - 1973
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, c. 1907
Oil on canvas
8' x 7' 8" (243.9 x 233.7 cm)
The Museum of Modern Art

Les Demoiselles d’Avignon marks a radical break from traditional composition and perspective in painting. It depicts five naked women with figures composed of flat, splintered planes and faces inspired by Iberian sculpture and African masks. Picasso unveiled the painting in his Paris studio after months of revision. The Avignon of the work’s title is a reference to a street in Barcelona famed for its brothel. In Picasso’s preparatory studies for the work, the figure at the left was a man, but the artist eliminated this anecdotal detail in the final painting. More

Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, also known as Pablo Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973), was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. One of his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907).

Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. His work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1904–1906), the African-influenced Period (1907–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), also referred to as the Crystal period.

Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, and became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art. More

Pablo Picasso, 1881 - 1973
La Gommeus, c. 1901
Oil on canvas
31 7/8 by 21 1/4 in., 81.3 by 54 cm 

La Gommeuse, a gorgeous cabaret performer whose very body defines the perverse beauty of the age.  Portrayed in an absinthian haze of sexual ennui, she is both temptation and downfall incarnate, a high priestess of melancholy and a siren of joie de vivre. More

The painting was executed following Picasso's successful exhibition at the Vollard gallery that June. This was at the start of his Blue period of 1901 to 1904, thought to have been occasioned by the suicide of his friend Carlos Casagemas earlier in the year

The caricature of Picasso's friend Pere Mañach on the reverse is inscribed "Recuerdo a Mañach en el día de su santo", demonstrating the painting was intended as a gift for Mañach on his Saint's Day (29 June). Mañach was a Catalan anarchist who shared Picasso's studio flat in the Boulevard de Clichy. More

Edvard Munch
Brothel Scene, c. 1907
Oil on canvas
85 x 130.5 cm
Munch Museum, Oslo

Edvard Munch (12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter and printmaker whose intensely evocative treatment of psychological themes built upon some of the main tenets of late 19th-century Symbolism and greatly influenced German Expressionism in the early 20th century. One of his most well-known works is The Scream of 1893. More

Edvard Munch was a prolific yet perpetually troubled artist preoccupied with matters of human mortality such as chronic illness, sexual liberation, and religious aspiration. He expressed these obsessions through works of intense color, semi-abstraction, and mysterious subject matter. Following the great triumph of French Impressionism, Munch took up the more graphic, symbolist sensibility of the influential Paul Gauguin, and in turn became one of the most controversial and eventually renowned artists among a new generation of continental Expressionist and Symbolist painters. Munch came of age in the first decade of the 20th century, during the peak of the Art Nouveau movement and its characteristic focus on all things organic, evolutionary and mysteriously instinctual. More

Edvard Munch
Brothel Scene, c. 1903
Oil on cardboard 
Height: 59.7 cm (23.5 in.), Width: 83.3 cm (32.8 in.)
Munch Museum, Oslo

Pablo Picasso, 1881 - 1973
Nude in Red Stockings, 1901
Oil on canvas
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyon

Kees van Dongen (1877-1968) 
La cuirasse d'or, c. 1907
Oil on canvas 
51 3/8 x 51 5/8 in. (130.4 x 131.1 cm.) 

Cornelis Theodorus Maria 'Kees' van Dongen (26 January 1877 – 28 May 1968) was a Dutch-French painter and one of the Fauves at the controversial 1905 Salon d'Automne exhibition. He gained a reputation for his sensuous, at times garish, portraits.

Kees van Dongen was born in Delfshaven, a borough of Rotterdam. In 1892, at age 16, Kees van Dongen started his studies at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Rotterdam During this period (1892–97), van Dongen frequented the Red Quarter seaport area, where he drew scenes of sailors and prostitutes. 

Kees Van Dongen
Femme fatale, c. 1905
Oil on canvas
Height: 80 cm (31.5 in.), Width: 60 cm (23.62 in.)

In 1897, van Dongen lived in Paris for several months, where there was a large emigre community. Van Dongen began to exhibit in Paris, and participated in the controversial 1905 Salon d'Automne exhibition[4] along with Henri Matisse, André Derain, Albert Marquet, Maurice de Vlaminck, Charles Camoin, and Jean Puy.

Van Dongen’s candid, colourful portrait style was immensely fashionable by the end of World War I, and thereafter it remained his main focus. The figure of a glamorous woman with large eyes and red lips became his archetype. More

Édouard Manet (1832–1883)
Olympia, c. 1863
Oil on canvas
Height: 1,300 mm (51.18 in). Width: 1,900 mm (74.8 in).
Musée d'Orsay

Olympia, which was presented at the Salon in 1865, caused a huge scandal on account of both its subject matter – a naked prostitute depicted in a monumental format – and Manet’s free brushwork. He was probably attempting to be the “painter of modern life” called upon by Baudelaire to capture “the protean image of wanton beauty” in the “underworld” of cities. More

Olympia showed a  nude white woman ("Olympia") lying on a bed being brought flowers by a black servant. Olympia was modelled by Victorine Meurent. Olympia's confrontational gaze caused shock and astonishment when the painting was first exhibited because a number of details in the picture identified her as a prostitute. The French government acquired the painting in 1890 after a public subscription organized by Claude Monet. The painting is on display at the Musée d'Orsay, Paris. More

Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter. He was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint modern life, and a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism.

His early masterworks, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) and Olympia, both 1863, caused great controversy and served as rallying points for the young painters who would create Impressionism. Today, these are considered watershed paintings that mark the genesis of modern art. More

Jean-Louis Forain
Parisian Salon, c. 1878
Gouache, watercolor and pencil on wove rag paper
Height: 41.28 cm (16.25 in.), Width: 33.02 cm (13 in.)
Dixon Gallery and Gardens - Memphis, TN

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, b. 1864, Albi, France; d. 1901, Malromé, France
In the Salon, c. 1893
Pastel and oil on paperboard
20 7/8 x 31 3/8 inches (53 x 79.7 cm)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York

Toulouse-Lautrec depicted his subjects in a style bordering on, but rising above, caricature (exaggeration). He took subjects who often dressed in disguise and makeup as a way of life and stripped away all that was not essential, thus revealing each as an individual—but a prisoner of his own destiny. More

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Two Half-Naked Women Seen from Behind in the Rue des Moulins Brothel, circa 1894
Oil on cardboard 
Musée Toulouse-Lautrec  (France - Albi)

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864–1901)
Prostitutes, Femmes de Maison, circa 1893–1895
Pastel on emery cloth
60 x 49 cm
Dallas Museum of Art

Jan Sluijters
Women kissing (1905)

Johannes Carolus Bernardus  (Jan) Sluijters (17 December 1881 – 8 May 1957, Amsterdam) was a Dutch painter. He was a leading pioneer of various post-impressionist movements in the Netherlands. He experimented with several styles, including fauvism and cubism, finally settling on a colorful expressionism. His paintings feature nude studies, portraits, landscapes, and still lifes.

A number of streets are named after him in the Netherlands, including one in the neighborhood of streets named after 19th and 20th century Dutch painters in Overtoomse Veld-Noord, Amsterdam. More

Degas, Edgar (1834-1917) 
The Brothel, c.1879
Pastel & monotype on paper

Edgar Degas (19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) was a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings. He is especially identified with the subject of dance; more than half of his works depict dancers. He is regarded as one of the founders of Impressionism, although he rejected the term, preferring to be called a realist. He was a superb draftsman, and particularly masterly in depicting movement, as can be seen in his renditions of dancers, racecourse subjects and female nudes. His portraits are notable for their psychological complexity and for their portrayal of human isolation.

At the beginning of his career, Degas wanted to be a history painter, a calling for which he was well prepared by his rigorous academic training and close study of classic art. In his early thirties, he changed course, and by bringing the traditional methods of a history painter to bear on contemporary subject matter, he became a classical painter of modern life. More

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
In Bed, circa 1892
Thinned oil on cardboard
Musée d'Orsay  (France - Paris) 

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
In Bed: The Kiss, circa 1892
Thinned oil on cardboard

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
In Bed, circa 1892
Oil on cardboard
Musée d'Orsay  (France - Paris)

Henri Gervex (1852–1929)
Rolla, c. 1878
Oil on canvas
175 × 220 cm (68.9 × 86.6 in)
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux

Prominent demi-mondaines were often experienced businesswomen and were careful to build up significant assets in the form of money and property. The pinnacle of success for them was to negotiate the gift or construction of a town house and, once they had accumulated sufficient wealth, to set their sights on a marriage which would offer them a distinguished name and new-found respectability. More

Henri Gervex (Paris 10 December 1852 – 7 June 1929) was a French painter who studied painting under Alexandre Cabanel, Pierre-Nicolas Brisset and Eugène Fromentin. His early work belonged almost exclusively to the mythological genre, which served as an excuse for the painting of the nude, but not always in the best of taste. His Rolla of 1878, based on a poem by Alfred de Musset, was rejected by the jury of the Salon de Paris for immorality, since it depicted a scene from the poem of a naked prostitute after having sex with her client.
Gervex afterwards devoted himself to representations of modern life and achieved signal success with his Dr Péan at the Salpétrière ("The Operation"), a modernized paraphrase, as it were, of Rembrandt's Anatomy Lesson. More

Edvard Munch
The Day After, 1894-95
Oil, canvas
152 x 115 cm
National Gallery, Oslo

When Jens Thiis bought this picture for the National Gallery, Oslo, in 1909 the public was shocked; one critic denounced it as portraying a drunken prostitute. 

Jean-Louis Forain
Getting out of Bed
Oil on canvas

Edvard Munch
Ashes, 1894
Oil on canvas
120.5 x 141 cm
The National Museum of Art, Oslo

Against a dark background of slender tree trunks, a woman in pale clothing stands facing us. Her wide eyes, loose hair and open bodice tell us of what has happened. With her hands high on her head, her posture is expressive of despair, but also of power and victory. In the lower left quarter of the picture sits a man with his back turned to the woman. He is withdrawn and holds his hands dejectedly to his head. The only contact between the two after what has just happened in the sombre woods is through her long, red hair - More

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Artillerman and Girl, circa 1886
Oil on tracing paper
Musée Toulouse-Lautrec  (France - Albi) 

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Woman Pulling up Her Stockings, circa 1894
Oil on cardboard 
Musée Toulouse-Lautrec  (France - Albi)

Felix Vallotton
Women Washing and Dressing, c. 1897
Oil on cardboard
Height: 49 cm (19.29 in.), Width: 60.8 cm (23.94 in.)
Musée d'Orsay  (France - Paris)  
Brothel girls underwent regular medical checks to avoid any risk of infecting clients with venereal diseases. Their bodies were subjected to constant and scrupulous attention and this impeccable cleanliness was believed to have a preventative effect.

Félix Edouard Vallotton (December 28, 1865 – December 29, 1925) was a Swiss/French painter and printmaker associated with Les Nabis. He was an important figure in the development of the modern woodcut. More

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864–1901)
L' Inspection médicale, circa 1894
Oil on cardboard on wood
83.5 × 61.4 cm (32.9 × 24.2 in)
National Gallery of Art, Washington DC

André Derain (10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954)
Woman in a Chemise, c. 1906, 
oil on canvas
100 x 81 cm.
Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen

André Derain (10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954) was a French artist, painter, sculptor and co-founder of Fauvism with Henri Matisse. In 1895 Derain began to study on his own. In 1898, while studying to be an engineer at the Académie Camillo, he attended painting classes under Eugène Carrière, and there met Matisse.  Matisse persuaded Derain's parents to allow him to abandon his engineering career and devote himself solely to painting; subsequently Derain attended the Académie Julian.

Derain and Matisse worked together through the summer of 1905 in the Mediterranean village of Collioure and later that year displayed their highly innovative paintings at the Salon d'Automne. The vivid, unnatural colors led the critic Louis Vauxcelles to derisively dub their works as les Fauves, or "the wild beasts", marking the start of the Fauvist movement.

In 1907 art dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler purchased Derain's entire studio, granting Derain financial stability. He experimented with stone sculpture and moved to Montmartre to be near his friend Pablo Picasso and other noted artists. At Montmartre, Derain began to shift from the brilliant Fauvist palette to more muted tones, showing the influence of Cubism and Paul Cézanne. 

At about this time Derain's work began overtly reflecting his study of the Old Masters. The role of color was reduced and forms became austere; the years 1911–1914 are sometimes referred to as his gothic period. In 1914 he was mobilized for military service in World War I. After the war, Derain won new acclaim as a leader of the renewed classicism then ascendant. With the wildness of his Fauve years far behind, he was admired as an upholder of tradition. 

The 1920s marked the height of his success, as he was awarded the Carnegie Prize in 1928 for his "Still-life with Dead Game" and began to exhibit extensively abroad—in London, Berlin, Frankfurt, Düsseldorf, New York City and Cincinnati, Ohio.

During the German occupation of France in World War II, Derain lived primarily in Paris and was much courted by the Germans because he represented the prestige of French culture. Derain accepted an invitation to make an official visit to Germany in 1941, and traveled with other French artists to Berlin to attend a Nazi exhibition of an officially endorsed artist, Arno Breker. Derain's presence in Germany was used effectively by Nazi propaganda, and after the Liberation he was branded a collaborator and ostracized by many former supporters. More

In addition to washing and getting dressed up, the private life of prostitutes included their relationships with each other, which were a rich source of fantasy. Homosexual relationships within brothels were frequently described. Toulouse-Lautrec in particular depicts lesbians’ relationships with their own bodies, which they reappropriated in the absence of clients, in scenes imbued with suggestive tension. More

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (French, Albi 1864–1901 Saint-André-du-Bois)
The Sofa, ca. 1894–96
Oil on cardboard
24 3/4 x 31 7/8 in. (62.9 x 81 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) 
L'abandon (Les deux amies) 
oil on board 
18 x 26 5/8 in. (45.7 x 67.7 cm.) 

Kees Van Dongen
Friends, circa 1922
Oil on canvas
Height: 74 cm (29.13 in.), Width: 59 cm (23.23 in.)
Private collection

Henri de TOULOUSE-LAUTREC, France 1864 – 1901
The two friends, (Les deux amies), c. 1894
Oil on cardboard 
47.9 (h) x 34.0 (w) cm 

Kees Van Dongen
Nude and Woman in a Chemise, c. 1906
Oil on canvas
65 cm (25.59 in.), Width: 54 cm (21.26 in.)
Private collection

Henri de TOULOUSE-LAUTREC, France 1864 – 1901
The two friends, (Les deux amies), c. 1895
Oil on cardboard 
47.9 (h) x 34.0 (w) cm 
Sammlung E.G.Bührle  (Switzerland - Zurich)

Fin-de-siècle Paris was also the capital of lesbianism. However, until the mid century, and despite the acknowledgment of male homosexuality, female homosexuality had been considered absurd. This scepticism was grounded in the fact that many nineteenth-century psychologists and medical professionals did not believe in female sexual impulse. More

Jean-Louis Forain (1852–1931)
The Tub, c 1886-7
Oil on canvas
65.4 x 54.6 cm
The Tate Gallery, London

Nude figures are central to the work of Edgar Degas (1834-1917), from his early works in the first half of the 1850s to the final years of his artistic activity on the eve of the First World War. Even more than the dancers, the scenes of horse racing and urban life, or the portraits that made him famous, the nude was the genre Degas used to introduce new ideas and develop his style over the course of almost fifty years. More

Edgar Degas
Woman In A Bath Sponging Her Leg, c. 1883-1884
41 x 19.7 cm
Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

Edgar Degas
Woman Bathing in a Shallow Tub, c. 1885
Height: 81.3 cm (32.01 in.), Width: 56.2 cm (22.13 in.)
Metropolitan Museum of Art - New York

Edgar Degas
The Tub I
Oil on Canvas

Edgar Degas
The tub, c. 1886
Pastel on card
H. 60; W. 83 cm
Paris, Musée d'Orsay

Presented at the eighth Impressionist exhibition in 1886, this pastel is one of a series of seven pictures produced by Degas in the mid 1880's on the theme of women at their ablutions, a subject already explored by Degas in a series of monotypes, some ten years previously. 

Edgar Degas 1888 1890
Female Nude Reclining on a Bed
Oil on Canvas
36” inches wide by 27” inches high

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Acknowledgement: Musée d'Orsay, The Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art, BBCWikipediaThe Culture Trip LtdThe Huffington Post Van Gogh Museum,