Friday, October 21, 2016

18 Paintings of Paris, as portrayed by the Artists from 1850-1910 - Part 3 - With Footnotes

Victor-Gabriel Gilbert, (French, 1847-1935)
La marchande de fleurs sur les Quais à Paris, circa 1890 
Oil on canvas
29 x 36 1/2in (73.5 x 93cm)
Private Collection

Victor Gabriel Gilbert born in Paris the 13 February 1847 and died in the 21 July 1933. He was a French painter. He is buried in Montmartre cemetery in Paris. In 1860 he apprenticed to a painter and decorator. He followed with evening art classes under the direction of Father Levasseur, the School of the City of Paris. In the late 1870s, his taste for naturalism is developed and he turned to genre painting with scenes of streets, cafes, markets, especially that of Halles . He obtained a second class medal at the Salon of 1880 and a silver medal at the 1889 World Fair . It becomes a member of the French Society of Artists in 1914.

Victor Gilbert was appointed Knight of the Legion of Honour in 1897, and received the Prix Léon Bonnat in 1926. More

Edouard Henri Leon Cortès (French, 1882-1969)
Oil on panel
6 1/4 x 8 3/4in (16 x 22.3 cm)
Private Collection

 Edouard Cortes, (French, 1882-1969), see below

Edouard Henri Leon Cortès (French, 1882-1969)
L'arc de triomphe
Oil on thin panel laid down on board
6 1/4 x 8 3/4in (16 x 22.3 cm)
Private Collection

 Edouard Cortes, (French, 1882-1969), see below

Edouard Henri Leon Cortès (French, 1882-1969)
Le boulevard de la Madeleine 
Oil on canvas
20 1/2 x 31 1/2in (52 x 80 cm)
Private Collection

 Edouard Cortes, (French, 1882-1969), see below

Francois Flameng (French, 1856-1923)
An elegant beauty in the park 
Oil on canvas
51 1/2 x 31 1/4in (131x 78.5cm)
Private Collection

François Flameng (1856–1923) was a very successful French painter during the last quarter of the 19th century and the first quarter of the 20th. He was the son of a celebrated engraver and received a first-rate education in his craft. Flameng initially received renown for his history painting and portraiture, and became a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts. He decorated such important civic buildings as the Sorbonne and the Opera Comique, and also produced advertising work. Flameng was granted France's highest civilian honor, the Legion d'Honneur, and designed France's first bank notes. More

Lucius Rossi, (Italian, 1846-1913)
Leisure hours 
Oil on cradled panel
10 1/2 x 13 3/4in (26.7 x 34.9cm)
Private Collection

Lucius Rossi, (Italian, 1846-1913) was an Italian genre and portrait painter who lived and worked in Paris. Very little is known of his life. He moved to Paris from Rome in 1867, and started work as a designer for magazines and newspapers, and probably set up as an independent artist some years following. 

His paintings are characterised by his careful attention to the details of the costumes and the interior decoration of the settings. More

Eugene Galien-Laloue (French, 1854-1941)
La Madeleine 
Gouache and watercolor heightened with white on paper laid down on board
7 3/4 x 13in (19.5 x 31.5cm)
Private Collection

L'église de la Madeleine, Madeleine Church (on the Right); less formally, just La Madeleine) is a Roman Catholic church occupying a commanding position in the 8th arrondissement of Paris. The Madeleine Church was designed in its present form as a temple to the glory of Napoleon's army. 

The square was established in 1755, as Place Louis XV. The settlement around the site was called Ville l'Évêque, for it had belonged to the Bishop of Paris since the time of Philip II of France, when Bishop Maurice de Sully seized the synagogue that stood on the site from the Jews of Paris in 1182, and consecrated it a church dedicated to Mary Magdalene. The site in the suburban faubourg had been annexed to the city of Paris in 1722. More

Eugène Galien-Laloue (1854–1941) was a French artist of French-Italian parents and was born in Paris on December 11, 1854. He was a populariser of street scenes, usually painted in autumn or winter.

His paintings of the early 1900s accurately represent the era in which he lived: a happy, bustling Paris, la Belle Époque, with horse-drawn carriages, trolley cars and its first omnibuses. Galien-Laloue's works are valued not only for their contribution to 20th-century art, but for the actual history, which they document. His work can be seen at the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Louvier; Musée des Beaux-Arts, La Rochelle; Mulhouse, France.

A typical Galien-Laloue painting depicts sidewalks and avenues crowded with people or tourists mingling before the capital's monuments. He also painted the landscapes of Normandy and Seine-et-Marne, as well as military scenes he was commissioned to produce in 1914. The Republic of France selected Galien-Laloue to work as a 'war artist,' both during the Franco-Prussian War and World War I, chiefly in watercolor.

Galien-Laloue was in exclusive contract with one gallery and used 5 other names: "L.Dupuy", "Juliany", "E.Galiany", "Lievin" and "Dumoutier". More

Edouard Henri Leon Cortès (French, 1882-1969)
La gare de l'Est 
Oil on canvas
15 x 18in (38.1 x 45.7cm)
Private Collection

 Edouard Cortes, (French, 1882-1969), see below

Edouard Henri Leon Cortès (French, 1882-1969)
Les grands boulevards 
Oil on canvas
18 x 21in (46 x 53.5cm)
Private Collection

 Edouard Cortes, (French, 1882-1969), see below

Victor Guerrier, (French, 1893-1968)
Oil on canvas
73.7 x 100.3cm (29 x 39 1/2in)
.Private Collection

Victor Guerrier, (French, 1893-1968)  was born and trained in Lyon living much of his life at Saint Cyr au Mont d’Or. He began his career as an illustrator but made his name painting Belle Epoque subjects and Parisian life between the wars. 

Clearly inspired by the work of Impressionist masters such Manet and Toulouse-Lautrec his work captures and celebrates the diversity of life in Paris at the turn of the century; from the nightclubs of Montmartre to the cafés of the Champ-Elysses, Guerrier depicts French high society in its pomp. There is often a subtle narrative to the work, where a stolen glance speaks volumes. Further evidence of Manet’s work is evident in his figures, who often stare directly at the viewer, creating images that are, at once, engaging and arresting, while the fashions of the age are beautifully rendered with a vivid palette and deftly applied impasto. 

Guerrier also worked in the Alps and Algeria producing a number of Orientalist subjects along with a series of paintings in St Paul de Vence. He exhibited at the Salon de Printemps. More

Edouard Henri Leon Cortès (French, 1882-1969)
A view of Notre-Dame 
Oil on panel
6 1/4 x 8 1/2in (16 x 21.5cm)
Private Collection

 Edouard Cortes, (French, 1882-1969), see below

Eugene Galien-Laloue (French, 1854-1941)
Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris 
Gouache and watercolor heightened with white on paper laid down on board
8 1/4 x 13 1/4in (21 x 33.5cm)
Private Collection

Jean-François Raffaëlli, 1850 - 1924
Oil and batônet Raffaëlli on paper laid down on canvas
28 by 36 in., 71 by 91.5 cm

Les Champs-Élysées was at one time owned by Alma de Bretteville Spreckels, affectionately referred to as "Big Alma". A San Francisco socialite and philanthropist who stood six feet tall, Big Alma was a visible presence who was also considered a hugely influential art collector in America. In the early twentieth century, she spent a significant amount of time in Paris and amassed an impressive collection. She was a friend and patron to Auguste Rodin and bought many works directly from him to bring back to San Francisco where she would eventually found the California Palace of the Legion of Honor. It was in Paris where she likely acquired this painting and it has been in her family's collection until recently. More

Jean-François Raffaëlli (April 20, 1850 – February 11, 1924) was a French realist painter, sculptor, and printmaker who exhibited with the Impressionists. He was also active as an actor and writer.

Born in Paris, he was of Tuscan descent. He showed an interest in music and theatre before becoming a painter in 1870. One of his landscape paintings was accepted for exhibition at the Salon in that same year. In October 1871 he began three months of study under Jean-Léon Gérôme at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris; he had no other formal training.

Raffaëlli produced primarily costume pictures until 1876, when he began to depict the people of his time—particularly peasants, workers, and ragpickers seen in the suburbs of Paris—in a realistic style. His new work was championed by influential critics such as J.-K. Huysmans, as well as by Edgar Degas.

Degas invited Raffaëlli to participate in the Impressionist exhibitions of 1880 and 1881, an action that bitterly divided the group; not only was Raffaëlli not an Impressionist, but he threatened to dominate the 1880 exhibition with his outsized display of 37 works. Monet, resentful of Degas's insistence on expanding the Impressionist exhibitions by including several realists, chose not to exhibit.

After winning the Légion d'honneur in 1889, Raffaëlli shifted his attention from the suburbs of Paris to city itself, and the street scenes that resulted were well received by the public and the critics. He made a number of sculptures, but these are known today only through photographs. In the later years of his life, he concentrated on color printmaking. Raffaëlli died in Paris on February 11, 1924. More

 Edouard Cortes, (French, 1882-1969)
La Porte Saint Martin, c. 1920s/1930
Oil on canvas
18 x 21 in. (457 x 533 mm)
Private Collection

This in the 10eme arrondissement, probably from the vantage point of the Rue du Faubourg Saint Martin. 

Edouard Léon Cortès (1882–1969) was a French post-impressionist artist of French and Spanish ancestry. He is known as "Le Poete Parisien de la Peinture" or "the Parisian Poet of Painting" because of his diverse Paris cityscapes in a variety of weather and night settings. Cortes was born in Lagny-sur-Marne, about twenty miles east of Paris. His father, Antonio Cortès, had been a painter for the Spanish Royal Court.

Although Cortès was a pacifist, when war came close to his native village he was compelled to enlist in a French Infantry Regiment at the age of 32. As a contact agent Cortès was wounded by a bayonet, evacuated to a military hospital, and awarded the Croix de Guerre. After recovery he was the reassigned to utilize his artistic talent to sketch enemy positions. Later in life his convictions led him to refuse the Légion d'Honneur from the French Government. In 1919 he was demobilized.

Cortès lived a simple life amid a close circle of friends. He died on November 28, 1969, in Lagny, and has a street named in his honor. More

Georges Stein (1870-1955)
Paris Street Scene
13 x 8 3/4 in (33 x 22.2 cm)
Private Collection

Georges Stein was a late 19th and early 20th century French painter, best known for scenes of Parisian street life. Sources conflict about Stein's dates of birth and death. The Benezit Dictionary of Artists gives the year of birth as "c. 1870". The auction house Christie's, among others, gives the dates 1855–1930, and the French National Library the dates 1870–1955. Moreover, the journal L'Éventail of 15 January 1918 mentions "the painter Georges Stein who recently died at Geneva".

There is also some confusion as to the gender of Stein. While the Benezit Dictionary and L'Éventail refer to Stein as male, some gallery websites describe Stein as a female painter. More

Victor Guerrier (1893 - 1968)
La Promenade
Oil on Canvas 
39⅜ x 28¾ in – 100 x 73 cm
Private Collection

Victor Guerrier (1893 - 1968), see above

 Victor Guerrier (French, 1893-1968)
Jeunes femmes au marché aux fleurs 
Oil on canvas
100.4 x 81.3cm (39 1/2 x 32in)
Private Collection

Victor Guerrier (1893 - 1968), see above

Marie-François Firmin-Girard, 1838-1921
Oil on canvas
32 3/4 by 46 in., 83 by 117 cm

Les Halles has been an important commercial area in Paris since the twelfth century, when King Philippe II Auguste expanded the marketplace and built a shelter for the merchants that came from all over to sell their wares. In the 1850s, massive glass and iron buildings were added and are depicted in Firmin-Girard's composition, out of which spills this bustling autumn market-scene behind the Église de Saint Eustache. More

François-Marie Firmin-Girard, born 29 May 1838 in Poncin ( Ain ) and died 8 January 1921 in Montlucon ( Allier ), is a historical painter of religious subjects, genre scenes, portraits, landscapes, still lifes and flowers.

He established himself very early, in Paris. He entered the School of Fine Arts in 1854 in the workshops of Charles Gleyre and Jean-Léon Gérôme . He won the second Prix de Rome in 1861 and set up his studio at Boulevard de Clichy in Paris. From 1859 he exhibited at the Paris Salon and the Salon of French artists , winning numerous medals. Sometimes with a realistic style, sometimes close to Impressionism, always with a beautiful light, he painted with equal ease his history paintings, genre scenes, landscapes and flowers. Among his many works are cited San Sebastian, After the Ball, Shopping flowers, The Betrothed, The Terrace at Le Quai Onival or flowers. Firmin-Girard was certainly one of the most popular painters of the public of his time in Paris. More

Acknowledgement: Bonhams, Sotheby's, 

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others

Sunday, October 16, 2016

19 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, with Footnotes. #1

Edgar Degas
At the Mirror, c. 1889
Pastel on paper
49 x 64 cm
Kunsthalle, Hamburg

Edgar Degas (19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) was a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings. He is especially identified with the subject of dance; more than half of his works depict dancers. He is regarded as one of the founders of Impressionism, although he rejected the term, preferring to be called a realist. He was a superb draftsman, and particularly masterly in depicting movement, as can be seen in his renditions of dancers, racecourse subjects and female nudes. His portraits are notable for their psychological complexity and for their portrayal of human isolation.

At the beginning of his career, Degas wanted to be a history painter, a calling for which he was well prepared by his rigorous academic training and close study of classic art. In his early thirties, he changed course, and by bringing the traditional methods of a history painter to bear on contemporary subject matter, he became a classical painter of modern life. Moe

Eugen von Blaas, 1843 - 1931, AUSTRIAN
Oil on panel
78 by 39cm., 30¾ by 15¼in
Private Collection

Eugene de Blaas, (24 July 1843 – 10 February 1932), was an Italian painter in the school known as Academic Classicism. He was born at Albano, near Rome, to Austrian parents. His father Karl, also a painter, was his teacher. The family moved to Venice when Karl became Professor at the Academy of Venice. He often painted scenes in Venice, but also portraits and religious paintings.

Eugene de Blaas (1843 - 1931)
The Water Carrier, c. 1908
Oil on Canvas
75 x 44
Private Collection

His colorful and rather theatrical period images of Venetian society, e.g. On the Balcony (1877; Private Collection), were quite different compared to delicate pastels and etchings of the courtyards, balcony and canals of modern Venice.

Eugene de Blaas' paintings were exhibited at the Royal Academy, Fine Art Society, New Gallery and Arthur Tooth and Sons Gallery in London, and also at the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. More

Gaetano Bellei (Italian, 1857-1922)
Giornata di pioggia (Rainy day), c. 1919
Oil on canvas
151.5 x 111cm (59 5/8 x 43 11/16in)
Private Collection

Capturing something of the Belle Époque, Bellei painted a number of large canvases which feature elegant women, either set in glamorous interiors, such as In the theatre and Off to the Masquerade, or battered by the elements, such as Gust of wind  and A windy day. These works allow the artist to demonstrate his skill in depicting cloth and costume. More

Gaetano Bellei was an Italian Academic Painter who was born in 1857. He later died in 1922 in the same city. He enhanced his artistic talent by learning art from Adeodato Malatesta and Comrade of John Muzzioli. When he was 24 year old, he won the Retired Potetti due which he was able to visit Rome to study arts. One of his most notable masterpieces is Rizpah which he completed there.

He took part in many local exhibitions in Florence. Afterwards, he came back to his native city became a professor in the Institute of Fine Arts Designer Polite. He was a master of fine art and used to use palette as a bright, fresh and creative tool. He was also a brilliant portrait artist. He has held many art exhibitions throughout his life, one such notable art exhibition was held in London in 1822 at The Royal Academy. More

Istvan Szonyi (1894-1960)
Reclining Nude
Oil on canvas
19 3/4 x 23 3/4 in (50.1 x 60.3 cm)
Private Collection

István Szőnyi (1894-1960) was a Hungarian painter noted for works such as The Bend of the Danube and Zebegény. He and his family rescued Jews during the Holocaust. Hence they were declared Righteous Among the Nations on October 2, 1984. István Szőnyi was one of the most gifted members of the Nagybánya group. More

Philip Krevoruck (1919-1999)
Women Watching, circa 1940
Oil on canvas
20 x 16 in (50.8 x 40.6 cm)
Private Collection

Philip Krevoruck (1919-1999)  was born January 26, 1919 in Fitchburg, MA. He was active/lived in New York, Massachusetts / China. He is known for abstract urban and industrial scene painting. Krevoruck completed 4 years of college prior to WWII and taught art. The artist is well versed in a variety of extraordinary styles. Particularly known for his WPA subjects, Krevoruck's work revealed a realistic portrayal of American life, exposing the true conditions of the urban city, industrial work environments and the everyday scenes of working class Americans. Krevoruck painted the faces of his fellow countrymen, the strengths, struggles, tribulations and stoic lives of everyday men and women. More

Giovanni Boldini (1842–1931)
Lina Cavalieri, c. 1901
Oil on canvas
Private collection

Natalina "Lina" Cavalieri (1874-1944) was an Italian opera soprano singer, actress, and monologist. She was painted by the Italian artist Giovanni Boldini (acquired by Maurice Rothschild) and by the Swiss-born American artist Adolfo Müller-Ury (1862–1947). The latter is now the property of the Metropolitan Opera, the gift of Nicholas Meredith Turner in memory of his wife, the soprano Jessica Dragonette. Hers is the face that appears repeatedly, obsessively, in Piero Fornasetti's designs. More

Giovanni Boldini (Italian, 1842-1931)
Portrait of Lina Cavalieri, c. 1901-1902
Black chalk
12.5 x 19.5cm (4 15/16 x 7 11/16in).
Private collection

Giovanni Boldini (31 December 1842 in Ferrara, Italy – 11 July 1931 in Paris, France) was an Italian genre and portrait painter. According to a 1933 article in Time magazine, he was known as the "Master of Swish" because of his flowing style of painting. Boldini was born in Ferrara, the son of a painter of religious subjects, and in 1862 went to Florence for six years to study and pursue painting. He only infrequently attended classes at the Academy of Fine Arts, but in Florence, met other realist painters known as the Macchiaioli, who were Italian precursors to Impressionism. 

Moving to London, Boldini attained success as a portraitist. He completed portraits of premier members of society. From 1872 he lived in Paris, where he became a friend of Edgar Degas. He also became the most fashionable portrait painter in Paris in the late 19th century. He was nominated commissioner of the Italian section of the Paris Exposition in 1889, and received the Légion d'honneur for this appointment.

A Boldini portrait of his former muse Marthe de Florian, a French actress, was discovered in a Paris flat in late 2010, hidden away from view on the premises that were unvisited for 70 years. The portrait has never been listed, exhibited or published and the flat belonged to de Florian's granddaughter who went to live in the South of France at the outbreak of the Second World War and never returned. A love-note and a biographical reference to the work painted in 1888, when the actress was 24, cemented its authenticity. The full length portrait of the lady in the same clothing and accessories, but less provocative, hangs in the New Orleans Museum of Art. More

Pál Fried (Hungarian 1893-1976) 
Woman with Guitar and Flamenco Dancer 
Oil on canvas 
26 x 24 in (66 x 61 cm)
Private Collection

Pál Fried (16 June 1893 in Hungary – 6 March 1976 in New York City) was a Hungarian artist. His oil paintings were usually of dancers, nudes, and portraits, and his subjects were almost always women, although he also painted Paris, seascapes, and cowboys and landscapes of the American West. He signed his paintings, as is usual in Hungarian, with his surname first as "Fried Pál". At times, this particular artist would make several, almost identical versions of the same oil painting, except he would use slightly different facial expressions and/or would try different colour schemes.

Fried immigrated to the United States in 1946 after World War II, and became a U.S. citizen in 1953. He lived in Los Angeles and New York City. more

Peter Doig
100 Years Ago (Carrera), 2001
Oil on canvas
229 x 358.5 cm
90 1/8 x 141 1/8 in
 Collection Centre Pompidou

Peter Doig's paintings have a tendency to disorientate us, even when they depict recognisable imagery such as figures and buildings. We are often plunged into an unreliable world of reflections, sometimes literally when we are presented with the icy lakes and watery depths . More

Peter Doig (born 17 April 1959) is a Scottish painter. One of the most renowned living figurative painters, he has settled in Trinidad since 2002. Peter Doig was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. In 1962 he moved with his family to Trinidad, where his father worked with a shipping and trading company, and then in 1966 to Canada. He moved to London to study at the Wimbledon School of Art in 1979-80, Saint Martin's School of Art, from 1980 to 1983, and Chelsea School of Art, in 1989-90, where he received an MA. In 1989, the artist held a part-time job as a dresser at the English National Opera.

Doig was invited to return to Trinidad in 2000, to take up an artist's residency with his friend and fellow painter Chris Ofili. In 2002, Doig moved back to the island, where he set up a studio at the Caribbean Contemporary Arts Centre near Port of Spain. He also became professor at the Fine Arts Academy in Düsseldorf, Germany. More

Theodor Grust, (1859-1919)
Profile of a Woman, c. 1900
Oil on canvas
45.4 x 34.4 cm
Private Collection

Theodor Grust (1859-1919) was a German genre and porcelain painter from the Saxon town Meissen. Grust studied at the Academy in Dresden as a pupil of Theodor Grosse. Later he went to Munich. The artist travelled to Belgium and to the Netherlands before he settled down in his hometown Meissen. Grust worked there in the famous porcelain manufacture, where he created abstract and linear designs in the style of Henry van de Velde and pushed forward the development of Jugendstil (Art Nouveau) in the factory. As a genre painter the artist focused on bourgeois interiors. He was inspired by the great Flemish masters of this genre. More

Theodor Grust, (1859-1919)
Red Cross Nurse, late 19th/early 20th century
oil on canvas
45.5 x 35.7 cm
Private Collection

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755–1842) 
Self-portrait in a Straw Hat, c. 1782
Oil on canvas
97.8 × 70.5 cm (38.5 × 27.8 in)
National Gallery

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (Marie Élisabeth Louise; 16 April 1755 – 30 March 1842), also known as Madame Lebrun, was a prominent French painter.

Her artistic style is generally considered part of the aftermath of Rococo, while she often adopts a neoclassical style. Vigée Le Brun cannot be considered a pure Neoclassicist, however, in that she creates mostly portraits in Neoclassical dress rather than the History painting. While serving as the portrait painter to Marie Antoinette, Vigée Le Brun works purely in Rococo in both her color and style choices.

Vigée Le Brun left a legacy of 660 portraits and 200 landscapes. In addition to private collections, her works may be found at major museums, such as the Hermitage Museum, London's National Gallery, and museums in continental Europe and the United States. More

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755–1842) 
Self-portrait, c. 1781-1782
Oil on canvas
64.8 × 54 cm (25.5 × 21.3 in)
Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas, United States

Stylistically, Vigée Le Brun avoided both the lightness of Late Rococo and the artifice of Neo-Classicism, countering both with a modulated naturalism. She became an artist against great odds, as did any woman in late-18th-century Paris, and aided by the patronage of Marie Antoinette, went on to thrive in a nine-lives, astutely managed sort of way. But her royal ties made her a target of the press, as did her high prices and her gender. She wisely fled France at the start of the revolution. More

Romualdo Locatelli (Italian, 1905-1943)
Oil on canvas
117.5 x 91cm (46 1/4 x 35 13/16in).
Private Collection

For Locatelli there are no problems beyond the beauty of the abundance of life. One will find no depth and metaphysical ideas in his work. In a spontaneous manner he reveals the beauty of the body and nature. Here there is no sadness and sorrow that are shown, but their opposite, the beauty and happiness of the world. Here are no complicated voices from a mysterious psyche but here is presented pure pleasure of the senses.

Romualdo Locatelli ( Bergamo , 1905 - Manila , 1943?) Was an Italian painter. Born into a family of painters and decorators, in whose workshop was formed nine artists. He learnt from his father the art of restoration and decoration. He applied to the art school Andrea Fantoni, then to Pontian Loverini Accademia Carrara. 

A fall from the scaffolding for the wall decoration of a church seriously compromising the health of his father, and probably influences the choice of Romualdo moving permanently to painting at the easel and in the studio. His fame began when he was just seventeen with his work PAIN, which portrayed the sick and ailing father. 

Driven by an insatiable wanderlust Romualdo travels to Sardinia, Abruzzo, Tuscany and as far as Africa, with his friend Ernesto Quarter Marchiò. He then moved to Rome, where Prince Umberto of Savoy commissioned the portraits of his children Vittorio Emanuele and Maria Pia. Despite the extreme success he achieved in the capital with his studio in via Margutta, he decides to move to the East. In 1939 he left Indonesia, first in Jakarta and then to Bali, where he became friends with the Italian-Egyptian painter Emilio Ambron. Numerous friendships in diplomatic circles enabled him to exhibit in New York city in 1941. 

Eventually Romualdo was no longer able to work; and his only entertainment was to go hunting. On February 24, 1943 went out hunting and did not return. More

Sir James Jebusa Shannon, RA, RBA, RHA (British, 1862-1923)
Contemplation, circa 1905-1910
Oil on canvas
63 x 75cm (24 13/16 x 29 1/2in)
Private Collection

Sir James Jebusa Shannon RA (1862–1923), Anglo-American artist, was born in Auburn, New York, and at the age of eight was taken by his parents to Canada.

When he was sixteen, he went to England, where he studied at South Kensington, and after three years won the gold medal for figure painting. His portrait of the Hon. Horatia Stopford, one of the queen's maids of honour, attracted attention at the Royal Academy in 1881, and in 1887 his portrait of Henry Vigne in hunting costume was one of the successes of the exhibition, subsequently securing medals for the artist at Paris, Berlin, and Vienna.

Sir James Jebusa Shannon, RA, RBA, RHA (British, 1862-1923)
The Flower Girl, c. 1900
Oil paint on canvas
838 x 660 mm
frame: 1090 x 1110 x 150 m

The Flower Girl; painted while the artist and his family were on holiday at Eastbourne in 1900. The woman was a flower girl whom they met regularly every morning on their way down to the beach; she consented to sit to Shannon in her ordinary working clothes and is shown nursing her baby. The artist's daughter Kitty recalls that her father told the flower girl to come ‘exactly as you are, baby, basket of flowers, the white blouse with the big black spots and old battered straw hat’. More

He soon became one of the leading portrait painters in London. He was one of the first members of the New English Art Club, a founder member of the Royal Society of Portrait Painters and in 1897 was elected an associate of the Royal Academy, and RA in 1909. His picture, "The Flower Girl", was bought in 1901 for the National Gallery of British Art (above). Shannon has paintings in the collection of a several British institutions including Sheffield, Derby Art Gallery, Glasgow Museum and Bradford Museum. More

John Opie, (1761–1807) 
Mary Wollstonecraft, circa 1797
Oil on canvas
30 1/4 in. x 25 1/4 in. (768 mm x 641 mm)
National Portrait Gallery, London

Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book, and a children's book. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason.

Wollstonecraft married the philosopher William Godwin, one of the forefathers of the anarchist movement. Wollstonecraft died at the age of 38, eleven days after giving birth to her second daughter, leaving behind several unfinished manuscripts. This daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, became an accomplished writer herself, as Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein. More

John Opie RA (16 May 1761 – 9 April 1807) was a Cornish historical and portrait painter. He painted many great men and women of his day, including members of the British Royal Family, and others who were most notable in the artistic and literary professions.

Born in Trevellas, England, he showed a precocious talent for drawing and mathematics. His father, however, did not encourage his abilities, and apprenticed him to his own trade of carpentry. Opie's artistic abilities eventually came to the attention of Dr John Wolcot, who recognising his great talent. Wolcot became Opie's mentor, buying him out of his apprenticeship and insisting that he come to live at his home in Truro. Wolcot provided invaluable encouragement, advice, tuition and practical help in the advancement of his early career, including obtaining many commissions for work.

Opie's work, after an initial burst of popularity, rapidly fell out of fashion. In response to this he began to work on improving his technique, while at the same time seeking to supplement his early education, and to polish his provincial manners by mixing in cultivated and learned circles. In 1786 he exhibited his first important historical subject, the Assassination of James I, and in the following year the Murder of Rizzio, a work whose merit was recognized by his immediate election as associate of the Royal Academy. More

Richard Rothwell (1800–1868)
Portrait of Mary Shelley, c. 1840
National Portrait Gallery

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus (1818). She also edited and promoted the works of her husband, the Romantic poet and philosopher Percy Bysshe Shelley. Her father was the political philosopher William Godwin, and her mother was the philosopher and feminist Mary Wollstonecraft. More

Richard Rothwell (20 November 1800 – 13 September 1868) was a nineteenth-century Irish portrait and genre painter. Rothwell was born in Athlone, Ireland to James and Elizabeth and was the oldest of their seven children. He trained to become a painter at the Dublin Society's school from 1814 until 1820 and won a silver medal for his work. At the age of 24, he was made a member of the newly established Royal Hibernian Academy and exhibited portraits there from 1826 to 1829. He subsequently moved to London and worked as a studio assistant to Thomas Lawrence. When Lawrence died in 1830, Rothwell completed many of his unfinished works and was poised to become the next foremost portrait painter in Britain and Ireland. From 1831 to 1834, Rothwell toured Italy to study Italian art so that he could paint history paintings. When he returned to London, his popularity had evaporated. Rothwell lived and exhibited works in Ireland, the United States, London, and Italy, but he never again achieved the same level of popularity he had reached in the late 1820s. More

Hermenegildo Anglada-Camarasa, 1871 - 1959
Démarche gitane (Gypsies Andares), c. 1902
Oil on canvas
113.5 x 146 cm
Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía

By the nineteenth century, Spain had embraced Gypsy myth and lore. The Romantics were in awe of the gypsies for their otherworldliness and seeming ability to commune with nature, while the following generation of artists and writers, driven by patriotism in the wake of Spain's colonial losses, venerated the gypsy as the quintessential icon of Spanish identity. Nonell, Zuloaga, and Solana were among Anglada's contemporaries who endowed the gitana with a gravitas, at times playful, at times austere, that linked her inextricably with Spain's psyche.

Painted circa 1902, the present work is amongst the first paintings by the artist dedicated to this subject. Depicting the gypsy as a synthesis of brilliant colours and rhythmic forms, Anglada lifts her out of reality to a wholly aesthetic plane. The colours are mesmeric, while the striking rhythmical forms have a musicality about them which is reminiscent of the gypsy sub-culture most nobly embodied by dance and flamenco. More

Hermenegildo Anglada Camarasa (1871–1959), known in Catalan as Hermenegild (or Hermen) Anglada Caramasa, was a Catalan and Balearic Spanish painter.

Born in Barcelona, he studied there at the Llotja School. His early work had the clear academic imprint of his teacher, Modest Urgell. In 1894 he moved to Paris, and studied at the Académie Julian. He adopted a more personal style, after that of Degas and Toulouse-Lautrec, with their depictions of nocturnal and interior subjects. But his work was also marked by the intense colors which presaged the arrival of Fauvism. Lively brushwork reveals strong Oriental and Arab influences. Allied with the Vienna Secession movement, his decorative style draws comparison to Gustav Klimt.

He died in Pollença, on the island of Majorca, and is commemorated by a bronze bust on the 'Pine Walk' at Port de Pollença. More

Franz von Stuck, 1863 - 1928, GERMAN
Oil on board
82.5 by 37.5cm., 32½ by 14¾in
Private Collection

As masquerades flourished in eighteenth and nineteenth century Europe, Domino was probably the most common mask of all. Typical of the Venetian Carnival, it consisted of a black mask covering only the eyes and was sometimes worn with a cloak over the dress. Shown here held by the model! More

Franz Stuck (February 23, 1863 – August 30, 1928) was a German painter, sculptor, engraver, and architect. Born at Tettenweis near Passau, Stuck displayed an affinity for drawing and caricature from an early age. To begin his artistic education he relocated in 1878 to Munich, where he would settle for life. From 1881 to 1885 Stuck attended the Munich Academy.

In 1889 he exhibited his first paintings at the Munich Glass Palace, winning a gold medal for The Guardian of Paradise. In 1892 Stuck co-founded the Munich Secession, and also executed his first sculpture, Athlete. The next year he won further acclaim with the critical and public success of what is now his most famous work, the painting The Sin. Also during 1893, Stuck was awarded a gold medal for painting at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and was appointed to a royal professorship. In 1895 he began teaching painting at the Munich Academy.

Having attained much fame by this time, Stuck was ennobled on December 9, 1905 and would receive further public honours from around Europe during the remainder of his life. He continued to be well respected among young artists as professor at the Munich Academy, even after his artistic styles became unfashionable. More

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